Mainnet Merge Announcement | Ethereum Basis Weblog

  • Ethereum is shifting to proof-of-stake! The transition, often called The Merge, should first be activated on the Beacon Chain with the Bellatrix improve. After this, the proof-of-work chain will migrate to proof-of-stake upon hitting a selected Complete Issue worth.
  • The Bellatrix improve is scheduled for epoch 144896 on the Beacon Chain — 11:34:47am UTC on Sept 6, 2022.
  • The Terminal Complete Issue worth triggering The Merge is 58750000000000000000000, anticipated between Sept 10-20, 2022.
  • Observe: as introduced earlier, the Kiln testnet is being sundown. Operators will shut down on September 6, 2022.


Following years of laborious work, Ethereum’s proof-of-stake improve is lastly right here! The profitable improve of all public testnets is now full, and The Merge has been scheduled for the Ethereum mainnet.

The Merge is completely different from earlier community upgrades in two methods. First, node operators must replace each their consensus layer (CL) and execution layer (EL) shoppers in tandem, quite than simply one of many two. Second, the improve prompts in two phases: the primary, named Bellatrix, at an epoch peak on the Beacon Chain, and the second, named Paris, upon hitting a Complete Issue worth on the execution layer.

Improve Info


The Merge is a two-step course of. Step one is a community improve, Bellatrix, on the consensus layer triggered by an epoch peak. That is adopted by the execution layer’s transition from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake, Paris, triggered by a selected Complete Issue threshold known as the Terminal Complete Issue (TTD).

The Bellatrix improve is scheduled for epoch 144896 on the Beacon Chain — 11:34:47am UTC on Sept 6, 2022.

Paris, the execution layer’s portion of the transition, will probably be triggered by the Terminal Complete Issue (TTD) of 58750000000000000000000, anticipated between Sept 10-20, 2022. The precise date at which TTD is reached relies upon proof-of-work hash fee. Estimates for the transition will be discovered at and

As soon as the execution layer reaches or exceeds the TTD, the next block will probably be produced by a Beacon Chain validator. The Merge transition is taken into account full as soon as the Beacon Chain finalizes this block. Underneath regular community circumstances, this may occur 2 epochs (or ~13 minutes) after the primary post-TTD block is produced!

A brand new JSON-RPC block tag, finalized, returns the newest finalized block or an error if no such post-merge block exists. This tag can be utilized by functions to test if The Merge has been accomplished. Equally, good contracts can question the DIFFICULTY opcode (0x44) (renamed to PREVRANDAO post-merge) to find out if The Merge has occurred. We advocate infrastructure suppliers monitor general community stability along with finalization standing.

Shopper Releases

The next consumer releases assist The Merge on the Ethereum mainnet. Node operators should run each an execution and consensus layer consumer to stay on the community throughout and after The Merge.

When selecting which consumer to run, validators ought to be particularly conscious of the dangers of working a majority consumer on each the EL and CL. An explainer of those dangers and their penalties will be discovered right here. An estimate of present EL and CL consumer distribution and guides for switching from one consumer to a different will be discovered right here.

Consensus Layer

Warning: Lighthouse model v3.1.0 is a high-priority launch incorporates an necessary repair to make sure that Lighthouse doesn’t try to supply invalid blocks.

Warning: Teku model 22.9.0 is a required replace.

Execution Layer

Warning: Erigon model v2022.08.03-alpha incorporates an necessary repair to dam manufacturing and plenty of different minor patches. All Erigon customers are really useful to improve to this or a later model previous to the Merge.

Warning: geth model v1.10.22 incorporates a vital database concern, don’t use this model, and when you’ve got already upgraded, please improve to v1.10.23 as quickly as attainable.

Improve Specs

Consensus-critical adjustments for The Merge are laid out in two locations:

  • The consensus layer adjustments below the Bellatrix listing of the consensus-specs repository
  • The execution layer adjustments below the Paris spec within the execution-specs repository

Along with these, two different specs cowl how the consensus and execution layer shoppers work together:

  • The Engine API, specified within the execution-apis repository, is used for communication between the consensus and execution layers
  • Optimistic Sync, specified within the sync folder of the consensus-specs repository, is utilized by the consensus layer to import blocks because the execution layer consumer is syncing and to supply a partial view of the pinnacle of the chain from the previous to the latter

Merge Bug Bounty Bonus

All Merge-related bounties for vulnerabilities have acquired a 4x multiplier between now and the eighth of September. Important bugs are actually price as much as $1 million USD.

See the bug bounty program for extra particulars.


As a node operator, what ought to I do?

Publish-merge, an Ethereum full node is the mix of a consensus layer (CL) consumer which runs the proof-of-stake Beacon Chain and an execution layer (EL) consumer which manages the user-state and runs the computations related to transactions. The EL and CL consumer talk over an authenticated port utilizing a brand new set of JSON RPC strategies known as the Engine API. The EL and CL consumer authenticate one another utilizing a JWT secret. Node operators ought to check with their shoppers’ documentation for directions about the way to generate and configure this worth.

In different phrases, in the event you had been already working a node on the Beacon Chain, you now additionally must run an execution layer consumer. Equally, in the event you had been working a node on the present proof-of-work community, you will have to run a consensus layer consumer. For them to speak securely, a JWT token should be handed to every consumer. An replace to the ‘Run a Node’ part of the web site goes over these steps in additional element.

It’s price emphasizing that whereas they’re each a part of consensus layer consumer releases, working a Beacon Node is distinct from working a Validator Shopper. Stakers should run each, however node operators solely want the previous. This put up explains the distinction between each parts in additional element.

Additionally, be aware that every layer will keep an unbiased set of friends and expose its personal APIs. The Beacon and JSON RPC APIs will each proceed working as anticipated.

As a staker, what do I must do?

As defined above, validators on the Beacon Chain might want to run an execution layer consumer after The Merge along with their consensus layer shoppers. Pre-merge, this was strongly really useful, however some validators have outsourced these capabilities to third-party suppliers. This was attainable as a result of the one information required on the execution layer had been updates to the deposit contract.

Publish-merge, validators should be certain that consumer transactions and state transitions blocks that they create and attest to are legitimate. To do that, every beacon node should be paired with an execution layer consumer. Observe that a number of validators can nonetheless be paired to a single beacon node & execution layer consumer combo. This expands validators’ tasks but in addition provides a validator who proposes a block the suitable to its related transaction precedence charges (which at present go to miners).

Whereas validator rewards nonetheless accrue on the Beacon Chain and would require a subsequent community improve to be withdrawn, transaction charges will probably be paid, burned, and distributed on the execution layer. Validators can specify any Ethereum tackle as a recipient for transaction charges.

After updating your consensus consumer, make sure to set the price recipient as a part of your validator consumer configurations to make sure transaction charges are despatched to an tackle you management. When you have staked utilizing a third-party supplier, it’s as much as your chosen supplier to specify how these charges are allotted.

The Staking Launchpad has a Merge Readiness Guidelines that stakers can use to make sure they’ve gone by means of every step of the method. EthStaker have additionally hosted Validator Prep Workshops, with extra being deliberate.

Stakers who want to run a validator on a testnet in preparation for the mainnet proof-of-stake transition can achieve this on Goerli (now merged with Prater), which additionally has a Staking Launchpad occasion.

Why is the estimated date for the Terminal Complete Issue so broad?

The incremental issue added per block relies on the community hash fee which is risky. If extra hash fee joins the community, TTD will probably be reached sooner. Equally, if hash fee leaves the community, TTD will probably be reached later. Within the occasion of a big drop in hash fee ranges, a TTD Override could possibly be coordinated as was accomplished on Ropsten.

As an software or tooling developer, what ought to I do?

As defined in a earlier put up, The Merge could have solely minimal impression on a subset of contracts deployed on Ethereum, none of which ought to be breaking. Moreover, the lion’s share of consumer API endpoints stay secure (until you employ proof-of-work particular strategies reminiscent of eth_getWork).

That mentioned, most functions on Ethereum contain way more than on-chain contracts. Now’s the time to make sure that your front-end code, tooling, deployment pipeline and different off-chain parts work as meant. We strongly advocate that builders run by means of a whole testing & deployment cycle on Sepolia or Goerli and report any points with instruments or dependencies to these tasks’ maintainers. In case you are not sure the place to open a problem, please use this repository.

Moreover, please be aware that every one testnets other than Sepolia and Goerli will probably be deprecated post-merge. In case you are a consumer of Ropsten, Rinkeby or Kiln, you need to plan emigrate to Goerli or Sepolia. Extra details about this may be discovered right here.

As an Ethereum consumer or Ether holder, is there something I must do?

Whether or not you’re utilizing Ethereum functions on-chain, holding Ether on an change or in a self-custodied pockets, you wouldn’t have to do something. If an software, change or pockets you employ gives additonal directions or suggestions, you need to confirm these are literally coming from them. Be looking out for scams!

As a miner, is there something I must do?

No. In case you are mining on the Ethereum mainnet, try to be conscious that the community will function completely below proof-of-stake after The Merge. At that time, mining will not be attainable on the community.

What occurs if I’m a miner or node operator and I don’t take part within the improve?

In case you are utilizing an Ethereum consumer that’s not up to date to the newest model (listed above), your consumer will sync to the pre-fork blockchain as soon as the improve happens.

You’ll be caught on an incompatible chain following the outdated guidelines and will probably be unable to ship Ether or function on the post-merge Ethereum community.

As a validator, can I withdraw my stake?

No. The Merge is essentially the most difficult improve to Ethereum up to now. To attenuate dangers of community disruptions, a minimal method was taken which excluded any non-transition adjustments from this improve.

Withdrawals from the Beacon Chain will seemingly be launched within the first improve after The Merge. Specs for each the consensus and execution layers are in progress.

I’ve extra questions, the place can I ask them?

Be part of consumer staff builders, members of ETHStaker, researchers, and extra on the following Merge Neighborhood Name on Friday, Sept 9 at 14:00 UTC!

Thank You

Ethereum’s transition to proof-of-stake has been a loooong time coming. Thanks to everybody who contributed to researching, specifying, growing, analyzing, testing, breaking, fixing, or explaining the whole lot that obtained us to The Merge.

There have been far too many contributors over time to record right here, however who you’re. With out all of you within the bazaar, we would not have constructed this cathedral.

wen merge? Very 🔜.

Thanks to Joseph Schweitzer and Tomo Saito for the duvet picture for this put up!

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