How you can Implement CDC for MySQL and Postgres

There are a number of change information seize strategies obtainable when utilizing a MySQL or Postgres database. A few of these strategies overlap and are very comparable no matter which database know-how you’re utilizing, others are completely different. In the end, we require a strategy to specify and detect what has modified and a technique of sending these modifications to a goal system.

This submit assumes you’re aware of change information seize, if not learn the earlier introductory submit right here “Change Information Seize: What It Is and How To Use It.” On this submit, we’re going to dive deeper into the alternative ways you’ll be able to implement CDC when you have both a MySQL and Postgres database and examine the approaches.

CDC with Replace Timestamps and Kafka

One of many easiest methods to implement a CDC resolution in each MySQL and Postgres is by utilizing replace timestamps. Any time a document is inserted or modified, the replace timestamp is up to date to the present date and time and allows you to know when that document was final modified.

We will then both construct bespoke options to ballot the database for any new data and write them to a goal system or a CSV file to be processed later. Or we will use a pre-built resolution like Kafka and Kafka Join that has pre-defined connectors that ballot tables and publish rows to a queue when the replace timestamp is larger than the final processed document. Kafka Join additionally has connectors to focus on methods that may then write these data for you.

Fetching the Updates and Publishing them to the Goal Database utilizing Kafka

Kafka is an occasion streaming platform that follows a pub-sub mannequin. Publishers ship information to a queue and a number of customers can then learn messages from that queue. If we needed to seize modifications from a MySQL or Postgres database and ship them to a knowledge warehouse or analytics platform, we first have to arrange a writer to ship the modifications after which a client that would learn the modifications and apply them to our goal system.

To simplify this course of we will use Kafka Join. Kafka Join works as a center man with pre-built connectors to each publish and eat information that may merely be configured with a config file.


Fig 1. CDC structure with MySQL, Postgres and Kafka

As proven in Fig 1, we will configure a JDBC connector for Kafka Join that specifies which desk we wish to eat, detect modifications which in our case can be by utilizing the replace timestamp and which subject (queue) to publish them to. Utilizing Kafka Hook up with deal with this implies all the logic required to detect which rows have modified is finished for us. We solely want to make sure that the replace timestamp area is up to date (lined within the subsequent part) and Kafka Join will deal with:

  • Preserving monitor of the utmost replace timestamp of the most recent document it has printed
  • Polling the database for any data with newer replace timestamp fields
  • Writing the information to a queue to be consumed downstream

We will then both configure “sinks” which outline the place to output the information or have the supply system speak to Kafka instantly. Once more, Kafka Join has many pre-defined sink connectors that we will simply configure to output the information to many alternative goal methods. Providers like Rockset can speak to Kafka instantly and due to this fact don’t require a sink to be configured.

Once more, utilizing Kafka Join implies that out of the field, not solely can we write information to many alternative places with little or no coding required, however we additionally get Kafkas throughput and fault tolerance that may assist us scale our resolution sooner or later.

For this to work, we have to make sure that now we have replace timestamp fields on the tables we wish to seize and that these fields are all the time up to date every time the document is up to date. Within the subsequent part, we cowl implement this in each MySQL and Postgres.

Utilizing Triggers for Replace Timestamps (MySQL & Postgres)

MySQL and Postgres each assist triggers. Triggers assist you to carry out actions within the database both instantly earlier than or after one other motion occurs. For this instance, every time an replace command is detected to a row in our supply desk, we wish to set off one other replace on the affected row which units the replace timestamp to the present date and time.

We solely need the set off to run on an replace command as in each MySQL and Postgres you’ll be able to set the replace timestamp column to mechanically use the present date and time when a brand new document is inserted. The desk definition in MySQL would look as follows (the Postgres syntax can be very comparable). Word the DEFAULT CURRENTTIMESTAMP key phrases when declaring the replacetimestamp column that ensures when a document is inserted, by default the present date and time are used.

firstname VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL,
lastname VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL,
e-mail VARCHAR(50),

This may imply our update_timestamp column will get set to the present date and time for any new data, now we have to outline a set off that may replace this area every time a document is up to date within the consumer desk. The MySQL implementation is easy and appears as follows.

CREATE TRIGGER user_update_timestamp 
      SET NEW.update_timestamp = CURRENT_TIMESTAMP; 

For Postgres, you first need to outline a perform that may set the update_timestamp area to the present timestamp after which the set off will execute the perform. It is a refined distinction however is barely extra overhead as you now have a perform and a set off to take care of within the postgres database.

Utilizing Auto-Replace Syntax in MySQL

In case you are utilizing MySQL there may be one other, a lot less complicated manner of implementing an replace timestamp. When defining the desk in MySQL you’ll be able to outline what worth to set a column to when the document is up to date, which in our case can be to replace it to the present timestamp.

firstname VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL,
lastname VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL,
e-mail VARCHAR(50),

The advantage of that is that we now not have to take care of the set off code (or the perform code within the case of Postgres).

CDC with Debezium, Kafka and Amazon DMS

An alternative choice for implementing a CDC resolution is by utilizing the native database logs that each MySQL and Postgres can produce when configured to take action. These database logs document each operation that’s executed towards the database which may then be used to copy these modifications in a goal system.

The benefit of utilizing database logs is that firstly, you don’t want to put in writing any code or add any additional logic to your tables as you do with replace timestamps. Second, it additionally helps deletion of data, one thing that isn’t doable with replace timestamps.

In MySQL you do that by turning on the binlog and in Postgres, you configure the Write Forward Log (WAL) for replication. As soon as the database is configured to put in writing these logs you’ll be able to select a CDC system to assist seize the modifications. Two widespread choices are Debezium and Amazon Database Migration Service (DMS). Each of those methods utilise the binlog for MySQL and WAL for Postgres.

Debezium works natively with Kafka. It picks up the related modifications, converts them right into a JSON object that incorporates a payload describing what has modified and the schema of the desk and places it on a Kafka subject. This payload incorporates all of the context required to use these modifications to our goal system, we simply want to put in writing a client or use a Kafka Join sink to put in writing the information. As Debezium makes use of Kafka, we get all the advantages of Kafka reminiscent of fault tolerance and scalability.


Fig 2. Debezium CDC structure for MySQL and Postgres

AWS DMS works in the same strategy to Debezium. It helps many alternative supply and goal methods and integrates natively with all the widespread AWS information providers together with Kinesis and Redshift.

The primary good thing about utilizing DMS over Debezium is that it is successfully a “serverless” providing. With Debezium, in order for you the flexibleness and fault tolerance of Kafka, you will have the overhead of deploying a Kafka cluster. DMS as its title states is a service. You configure the supply and goal endpoints and AWS takes care of dealing with the infrastructure to cope with monitoring the database logs and copying the information to the goal.

Nevertheless, this serverless strategy does have its drawbacks, primarily in its function set.

Which Possibility for CDC?

When weighing up which sample to observe it’s necessary to evaluate your particular use case. Utilizing replace timestamps works while you solely wish to seize inserts and updates, if you have already got a Kafka cluster you’ll be able to stand up and working with this in a short time, particularly if most tables already embrace some sort of replace timestamp.

For those who’d fairly go together with the database log strategy, possibly since you need precise replication then you must look to make use of a service like Debezium or AWS DMS. I might counsel first checking which system helps the supply and goal methods you require. When you’ve got some extra superior use instances reminiscent of masking delicate information or re-routing information to completely different queues based mostly on its content material then Debezium might be your best option. For those who’re simply in search of easy replication with little overhead then DMS will give you the results you want if it helps your supply and goal system.

When you’ve got real-time analytics wants, you could think about using a goal database like Rockset as an analytics serving layer. Rockset integrates with MySQL and Postgres, utilizing AWS DMS, to ingest CDC streams and index the information for sub-second analytics at scale. Rockset also can learn CDC streams from NoSQL databases, reminiscent of MongoDB and Amazon DynamoDB.

The appropriate reply depends upon your particular use case and there are lots of extra choices than have been mentioned right here, these are simply a few of the extra widespread methods to implement a contemporary CDC system.

Lewis Gavin has been a knowledge engineer for 5 years and has additionally been running a blog about abilities inside the Information group for 4 years on a private weblog and Medium. Throughout his pc science diploma, he labored for the Airbus Helicopter group in Munich enhancing simulator software program for navy helicopters. He then went on to work for Capgemini the place he helped the UK authorities transfer into the world of Massive Information. He’s at present utilizing this expertise to assist remodel the information panorama at, a web-based charity cashback web site, the place he’s serving to to form their information warehousing and reporting functionality from the bottom up.

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